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Course Descriptions

BIO 100 The World of Biology (4)

An introduction to biology. Provides an overview of the study of life, including how biology affects our daily lives, including such topics as biodiversity, genetic engineering, and problems associated with the expanding human population. Designed for non-science majors. $50 lab fee. Offered each semester.

BIO 100 The World of Biology (3) (E)

An introduction to biology. The course presents an overview of the study of life. Emphasis is placed on how biology affects our daily lives, including such topics as biodiversity, genetic engineering, and problems associated with the expansion of the human population. Designed for non-science majors. Offered each semester.

BIO 101 The World of Biology Laboratory (1)

Compliments BIO 100. Students observe living systems and perform basic experiments that demonstrate fundamental biological principles using the scientific method as one way to acquire knowledge about our world. Designed for non-science majors. Laboratory session meets three hours each week. Prerequisite/co-requisite: BIO 100. $50 lab fee. Offered each semester.

BIO 131 Principles of Biology I: Evolution and Ecology (4)

An introduction to the biological sciences. Lecture topics include Darwinian evolution, the origin and diversity of life, functional morphology, and ecology. Designed specifically for students intending to pursue a major in biology or EES. $50 lab fee. Offered each fall.

BIO 132 Principles of Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics (4)

Completes the introduction to the biological sciences for biology and EES majors. Lecture topics include biochemistry, cell structure and processes, cell respiration, fermentation, photosynthesis, cell division, Mendelian genetics, gene expression, cancer biology, and animal physiology. $50 lab fee. Offered each spring.

BIO 150 Introduction to Marine Biology (4)

An introduction to the organisms and communities of marine and estuarine areas. Students examine the basic physical and ecological processes that are pertinent to marine habitats and the diversity of marine organisms and ecosystems. Includes field and laboratory identification of local organisms and investigations of local field habitats. Designed for non-science majors. $50 lab fee. Offered each fall.

BIO 221 Anantomy and Physiology I (4)

An integrated lecture/laboratory experience that examines the anatomy and physiology of humans. Includes a survey of the major organs and organ systems of the body from both the histological and gross anatomical perspectives. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. $50 lab fee. Offered each fall.

BIO 222 Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4)

An integrated lecture/laboratory experience that examines the anatomy and physiology of humans. Includes a survey of the nervous, endocrine, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems from the histological and gross anatomical perspectives. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. $50 lab fee. Offered spring on demand.

BIO 285 Plants and Man (4) (S)

Introduces students to the ways in which plants have sustained and influenced human cultures. Appropriate for both science and non-science majors. Offered fall of odd-numbered years.

BIO 300 Plant Morphology (4)

A morphological and evolutionary study of plants from bacteria to flowering plants. Provides a view of the structure and modes of reproduction of plants. Prerequisites: a grade of C or higher in BIO 132 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered spring of odd-numbered years.

BIO 311 Genetics (4)

Principles of heredity as applied to both plants and animals. Prerequisites: CHEM 105 or 117 and a grade of C or higher in both BIO 131 and 132 or one year of general biology. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered each semester.

BIO 316 General Ecology (4) (W)

A study of plant and animal communities in relation to habitat with emphasis on the effect of the environment on community structure and distribution. Prerequisites: BIO 131 and 132, or one year of general biology, or BIO 207. MATH 106 is recommended. Lecture three-hours, laboratory/field three hours each week. Offered each fall.

BIO 320 Ornithology (4)

A study of birds, emphasizing diversity, behavioral ecology, and life history. Regular field observations are required and may occur under a variety of weather conditions. Prerequisites: BIO 131 or 207. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.

BIO 332 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (4)

Focuses on the classification and identification of the plants of southern Virginia. Includes discussion of the characteristics of the major families of plants of North America. Prerequisites: a grade of C or higher in BIO 132 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered spring of even-numbered years.

BIO 354 Marine Invertebrate Evolution (4)

An introduction to the study of evolutionary processes, with particular attention paid to marine invertebrates, especially marine bivalves, because their rich evolutionary history and well-documented fossil record. Evolution is examined at a variety of scales from molecular to ecological. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Prerequisite: BIO 131 or BIO 132. $50 lab fee. Offered fall of even-numbered years on demand.

BIO 355 Marine Biology (4)

A study of organismal adaptation and community organization in marine and estuarine habitats. A variety of marine habitats are examined, with the laboratory focusing primarily on local species and habitat types. Prerequisite: two semesters of general biology or BIO 207. Offered each fall.

BIO 371 Histology (4)

A detailed study of the cells, tissues, and organs that comprise the mammalian body. Intended for students seeking careers in biology, medicine, or veterinary sciences. Prerequisite: a grade of C or higher in BIO 131 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.

BIO 372 Comparative Anatomy (4)

A study of the evolution, morphology, and physiology of vertebrates. An intensive laboratory-directed examination of the major organ systems of vertebrates as exemplified by the lamprey, dogfish, salamander, and cat. Intended for students seeking careers in biology, medicine, or veterinary sciences. Prerequisite: BIO 131 with a grade of C or higher or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.

BIO 373 Invertebrate Zoology (4)

A survey of the invertebrate phyla, emphasizing the classification, evolution, ecology, morphology, and life histories of these organisms. Includes laboratory examinations of representative groups and field sampling of local invertebrate fauna. Prerequisite: BIO 131. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.

BIO 380 Comparative Animal Physiology (4)

A study of the basic mechanisms by which animals function. Emphasizes how both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms change these basic mechanisms to adapt to environmental conditions. Prerequisites: a grade of C or higher in BIO 131 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered on demand.

BIO 384 Developmental Biology (4)

Explores the processes by which organisms grow and develop. Emphasizes principles and concepts that govern development in model organisms such as sea urchins, flatworms, fruit flies, zebra fish, and chickens. Regeneration of appendages, stem cells, cancer, and plants are discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 311 or consent. Offered on demand.

BIO 385 Animal Behavior (4)

A study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include genetics and development of behavior, neural and physiological mechanisms of behavior, communication, social behavior, habitat selection, reproductive behavior, and parental investment. Laboratory exercises provide hands-on experiences for many of these concepts. Prerequisites: BIO 131 and 132 or consent. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours each week. Offered spring of odd-numbered years.

BIO 400 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (2)

Introduces the broad research applications of SEM. Topics include sample preparation, critical point drying, sputter coating, imaging, and x-ray microanalysis. Includes weekly hands-on training with the SEM and completion of an independent research project. Prerequisites: junior/senior status and consent. Offered in select spring semesters and Winter Session.

BIO 410 Evolution (4)

A study of the theories of plant and animal evolution and their leading proponents. Prerequisite: junior/senior status. Offered each fall.

BIO 420 Cell and Molecular Biology (4)

A study of the structure and function of prokaryotes and eukaryotes at the cellular and molecular level. Emphasizes the molecular nature of cellular structure, metabolism, and physiology. Prerequisite: grades of C or higher in CHEM 311, 312, 321, and 322. Offered spring of even-numbered years.

BIO 435 Tropical Ecology (4) (I)

An intensive field experience in neotropical ecosystems (coral reefs, rainforests, caves, mangrove swamps, etc.), that links ecological phenomena with social and historical factors to examine the conservation of biodiversity. Field activities require moderately strenuous exercise and considerable hiking. Destinations may include Trinidad, Belize, Costa Rica, or other tropical sites. Course fee. Identical to EES 435. Offered Winter Session of even-numbered years.

BIO 460 Zymurgy: The Science of Fermentation (4) (I)

Introduces the science and art of fermentation and considers the use of alcohol by human societies. Prerequisite: senior status or consent. Offered in selected Winter Sessions and spring semesters.

BIO 470 Internship in the Natural Sciences (2-4)

An intensive study of a specific field of science through an on-site field experience with hands-on learning opportunities that are relevant to the chosen site. Students may enroll for 2 or 4 hours in a given semester. A minimum of 80 hours devoted to the internship is expected for 2 semester hours and a minimum of 160 hours is expected for 4 semester hours, but some placements may require more time. Students must coordinate their internship placement with the supervising faculty member at least two months prior to placement. Pass/fail grading. Prerequisites: junior/senior status and consent. Offered each semester and most Winter Sessions (2 semester only).

BIO 475 Natural and Social History of the Chesapeake Bay (4)

Provides a comprehensive view of one of the largest and most diverse estuaries in the world. Students examine the relationships between the natural history and the human history, including social and political aspects, use of the bay by various societies and their impact on and preservation of the bay. Saturday field trips required. Prerequisite: junior/senior status. Offered on demand.

BIO 482 Microbiology (4)

Teaches basic microbiological concepts and the role of microorganisms in various applied areas. Topics include microbial physiology, cell structure, microbial genetics, pathogenic microorganisms and disease, and environmental and applied microbiology. Students practice aseptic technique, isolation and identification of bacteria, staining, and determination of microbial numbers. Offered spring of odd-numbered years.

BIO 489 Research in the Natural Sciences (2-4)

Offers students the opportunity to conduct original scientific research in an area of interest. Students work closely with one or more members of the natural science faculty to develop and conduct a research project, then present their findings orally during the semester's undergraduate research symposium and as a formal research paper. Students are encouraged to present their findings at a conference. Prerequisites: junior/senior status and a major in the natural sciences, prior approval by the project advisor, and consent of the instructor. Students may enroll for 2 or 4 semester hours in a given semester. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 semester hours. Identical to CHEM 489, CS 489, and EES 489. Offered each semester and most Winter Sessions (2 semester hours only).

BIO EL2 Elective (3)

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